Unbounded/Unguided Transmission media

It is a form of a wireless media which does not require any mechanical connectors from the source to the destination. Mostly, it deals with transmission of data across the atmosphere and is efficient if both devices can receive the message.

It goes beyond the cabling system which confines the signals to follow a particular path in channeling data. There are three types of unbounded transmission media which include the Microwaves, Radio waves and Infrared waves.

Radio waves

It is a type of unguided transmission media which has a higher attenuation with a simple process of installation. The frequency of the radio transmission ranges from 10 kHz to 1 GHz and are utilized in multicasting communication. It uses two types of layers that enhance the transmission of information.

 The Troposphere measures approximately thirty miles from the surface of the earth while the Ionosphere is below the space but above the troposphere. The radio waves are measured in three types of frequencies which are the short waves, very high and ultra-frequencies.  The low power single frequency has a high attenuation while the high power frequency is characterized by a lower attenuation related to long distances.


Microwaves utilize the wireless form of disseminating communication and have a higher rate compared to the radio waves. It is entirely different in its functions and necessitates the source, or sender to be located inside the receiver. It has two types of transmission media which include the Terrestrial and satellite microwaves.

The terrestrial microwaves allow wireless signals to travel over a short distance probably a few miles. They function at a lower range of Giga Hertz and have a variable attenuation. The satellite microwaves convey information across the globe and use the satellites in orbit. The signals are carried by the satellite dishes which utilize the directional parabolic antenna.

Infrared waves

It is a transmission media which allows for a faster transmission of data because of the higher frequencies. The process can also be interfered with when objects obstruct the message from reaching the source or destination.

The infrared waves can either be from point to point or a broadcast. The point to point is where the information is transmitted directly between two systems. It also has a variable attenuation with a broad range of cost. The broadcast transmits the signals in all directions and is effective in reducing the issues related to abstraction. It is costly and also has a variable attenuation.